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C21 Feeding, Nutrition & Vaccination Programs

Name _________________________________                  Date _________


Good nutrition is the foundation for a long and healthy life for any pet.

Failure to provide proper and adequate nutrition, particularly in the early growing stages, can result in permanent and even life threatening problems and diseases as the animal matures.

Selecting a Diet

Choosing a type of dog food can be extremely difficult at times.

Many manufacturers make claims in advertising and on the product label that may be difficult to back with scientific data.

Even with a basic understanding of product labels and nutrient calculations, the task of merging the two is difficult.

The following will clarify and highlight some of the most essential points, but will not attempt to take every diet, every dog, and every situation into consideration.

All dog foods are NOT created equal. There is a great deal of difference between ___________________  (popular brands) and ____________________ brands found at pet stores, some feed stores, and veterinary clinics.

In general, popular brands vary greatly in quality of ingredients and focus more on ________________________ (taste and texture) instead of on __________________ content.

The premium brands use a "__________________ ___________________ " which means that the ingredients used remain the same despite changes in cost of the ingredients.

In general, the expression "you get what you pay for" holds true.

How to read the label

It is important to learn how to read pet food labels. Most labels contain a ____________________  _______________________ and a list of ingredients which can be misleading if not properly understood. The ingredients in the guaranteed analysis are usually expressed as minimum or maximum amounts. This means that the crude protein expressed as 27% minimum could actually be much higher and not be in violation of the label.

The list of ingredients should also be carefully examined. Nutrients that are contained in the ___________________ weight ___________________ are found ________________ on the _________.

Many manufacturers use different "techniques" to make it seem as though animal protein sources are the first on the list.

Some of these "techniques" include the following:

Adding some ingredients in a ___________ form and others in a ___________ form to make some appear to weigh more.

Listing some ingredients like corn and wheat in ______________ _____________ such as flaked, kibbled, and ground. If all forms were added together, the particular ingredient would be found higher in the list.

Terms like meat ____________________ and cereal by-products provide very little information because they can be a combination of many different components.

A product that has been proven through _______________________ _________________   _____________ is generally a better and more balanced diet.

Table scraps and most ________________ _______________ are NOT beneficial to pets.

In general, all dog foods should have some sort of __________________ ______________  ________________ listed as one of the _____________ _____________ ingredients.

A canned diet should have at least one ________________ _____________ in the list and contain a source of _______________________.

Any dog food that uses the terms ground, kibbled, or flaked for the same ingredient should be avoided.

Basic Nutrient Requirements on a dry matter basis

Stage of life

% Crude Protein

% Crude Fiber

% Crude Fat

% Moisture






Reproduction / Lactation





Normal Activity





Increased Activity





Old Age





After a particular product is chosen, the following information can be considered:

Hint #1: Every dog food contains very different amounts of water or moisture. This is expressed as % moisture or water and can vary from 5-80%.

Hint #2: The remaining food that is not water is considered _________ __________. Dry matter is the actual amount of the food that will provide nutrition for the animal.

Introduce the new diet.

Once a product has been determined to fill all the necessary nutritional requirements for a particular animal, the diet can be introduced to a pet.

When changing from one diet to another, the transition should be a ______________ one.

Begin on day one of the transition by feeding __________________ new diet and four-fifths old diet. This ratio can be increased one-fifth per day until a complete transition is achieved.

Failure to slowly transition an animal to a new diet can cause diarrhea and other intestinal problems.

Decide how much to feed.

The amount to feed and the ideal body weight for any animal is based on the _____________, _________________, level of ___________________, and _____________________________.

Because each dog is so different, it is recommended that the __________________ _______________ be the first place to start in identifying how much to feed.

It is important to choose a product that is labeled for the particular stage of life for a pet (growth, pregnancy, adult, senior etc.).

To begin with, feed exactly what the label recommends.

Monitor weight and appearance.

This is probably the most critical step in selecting any diet!

Because it is so extremely difficult to evaluate each and every diet, individual pet adaptation is highly recommended.

With the help of a veterinarian, monitor the animal’s weight, appearance, and hair coat over a period of a few weeks to months.

If drastic changes appear in any of the above areas, the diet must be re-evaluated and some adjustments made.

The ideal body weight and condition for any animal can be evaluated by a careful physical examination.

The _______________ should not be visible to the eye, but should easily be _______.

Excess areas of fat between the ribs or around the abdomen should not be present.

Some breeds may actually have a slight indentation behind the ribs when observed from above.

Any differences to the above statements should prompt an adjustment to the amount or type of diet being fed.

General guidelines for daily food and water consumption

Animal's weight in lbs. Canned (oz.) Dry (cups) Soft (cups) Water
5 8   1  
10 14   1.4  
15 18   2.0  
20 22   2.6  
30 30   3.6  
40 38   4.6  
50 45   5.0  
75 67.5   8  
100 90   11  
150 131   15.75  
225 180   22.5  

Hot Weather Care and Recommendations:

Dogs do not necessarily adapt easily to hot weather.

Because they do not _____________________, it is important to devise strategies to keep dogs cool and comfortable during hot weather.

During warm weather, dogs are also at increased risk from external parasites, biting insects, inhalant allergies, and heartworm disease.

The following are basic hot weather care recommendations:

Provide fresh water at all times:

Water is an essential nutrient; dogs need water on a daily basis to prevent dehydration and to ensure proper functioning of the body.

The dog’s need for water increases as the temperature rises.

All dogs should have access to clean water at all times.

Water bowls should be kept in _____________________ areas to prevent heating and evaporation.

Because they keep water cooler than metal or plastic bowls, ___________ or _______________ bowls should be used. 

Bowls should be secured so they cannot tip or spill.

Water should be ____________________ a minimum of _____________ per day.

In addition to drinking water, a tub or child’s pool filled with clean water will give dogs the opportunity to submerge themselves and cool off.

Provide shelter from the sun:

All dogs need protection from the burning rays of the sun.

The shelter needs to be a permanent structure large enough to shield the dog no matter where the sun is in the sky.

Do not tie the dog under a __________________ and expect the shade to last all day.

The ideal shelter in extremely hot weather is the owner’s house.

Dogs that are left outside should have a well ______________________ doghouse or shelter that allows them to get off the ___________________________.

Putting the doghouse under an overhang or shade tree will keep the interior cooler.

If the dog is kept in a concrete run, make sure the animal has access to a __________________  __________________ off the concrete.

Concrete exposed to the sun heats up rapidly and cools too slowly to provide a comfortable surface for the dog.

Protect your dog from heatstroke:

Dogs only cool by panting; they cannot sweat.

 As the outside temperature rises, panting becomes less effective and dogs can easily ________________________.

Old, young, obese, and ill dogs are at greater risk of overheating, as are dogs with short _____________________ and ____________________ faces.

Dogs can easily overheat during exercise or if they lack adequate water and shelter from the sun.

To prevent heatstroke, limit exercise, provide plenty of cool water and shade, and keep the dog out of ___________________  _________________, closed crates, and poorly ventilated rooms.

Monitor the dog for signs of overheating.

Dogs that are overheating will look ____________________, _________________ excessively, and have a rapid _________________  _______________.

The _____________, _________________, and __________________ will be hot to the touch. The mouth and tongue can be bright red or ___________________.

As the condition worsens and heat stroke occurs, the tongue may swell and the animal can develop diarrhea.

The condition can progress to weakness, coma, and death.

A dog that is suffering from heatstroke must be cooled immediately to prevent permanent damage or death.

Move the dog to a cool area and cover the animal with cool water.

Place ice packs wrapped in a towel in the ____________________ and around the _________________. Do not submerge the dog in ice. As soon as cooling has begun, seek emergency veterinary treatment.

Cold Weather Care and Recommendations:

Even though dogs have fur that insulates them from the cold, they are still susceptible to the ill effects of low temperatures.

Dogs can suffer from _________________________, ____________________, ___________________________, and ________________________ during the cold months.

It is important to devise strategies to protect and shelter them.

The following are some basic cold weather care recommendations that should be considered:

Provide fresh water at all times:

Dogs must have access to clean water at all times of the year.

Cold weather does not diminish the need for a constant supply of water.

__________________ and ________________ do not replace water.

A heater may be needed to keep water from freezing.

Large, ceramic bowls are better than metal bowls for holding water as the dog’s tongue may stick to a cold, metal bowl.

Provide shelter from rain, snow, and wind:

All dogs, no matter the length and thickness of their coats, need protection from winter __________________________ and __________________.

A proper structure keeps the dog warm, dry, out of drafts, and up off the damp ________________________.

If the dog cannot be kept in the house, a doghouse or similar structure must be constructed.

The house should be large enough to allow the dog to turn around and lie down in, but small enough for the dog’s _____________ to ________________.

It should be _______________________ to reduce heat loss to the outside.

Traditional wooden doghouses with an open front and peaked roof are not suitable for most winter environments.

The wood is a poor insulator, prone to rot, and attractive to insects.

The open door allows cold air to fill the house. A better design is a plastic resin house with an ___________  ______________ and a __________________ ___________.

Dog houses should be elevated off the ground, faced away from the prevailing ________, have a blanket or similar object for ______________________, and be placed under an existing roof or structure.

These tactics provide essential insulation and protection from the elements.

Protect your dog from toxins and poisons:

The commercial products used to make life easier in the cold months can be dangerous for dogs.

Road ______________ and the _______________________ designed to melt ice are ________________ for dogs. They irritate the dog’s ______________________, can ___________ _____________, and cause mouth irritations if swallowed.

Sand mixed in with the chemicals can abrade pads and skin, leading to more irritation and secondary infections.

The dog’s exposure to these irritants can be limited by putting boots on the dog and making sure that ice, snow, and road salt are routinely removed from the feet, chest, and belly.

_______________________________ these areas and drying them will remove the chemicals, melt hardened ice and snow, and remove bacteria.

Care should also be taken to keep car products, such as _______________________, away from dogs.

Antifreeze is also used by some owners to prevent freezing of pipes in a home that is closed for the winter. This type of antifreeze, made from ethylene glycol, __________________ ________________ and is extremely toxic to dogs.

Dogs have been known to chew through the plastic bottle to get to the antifreeze inside.

Antifreeze containers should be wiped clean before storing and should be stored in areas that are inaccessible to dogs.

Very small amounts of the product can cause rapid ______________ _____________ and death.

If a dog has consumed antifreeze, the animal should be brought to the veterinarian for immediate treatment.

Do not wait to see if the dog becomes sick; seek emergency medical care as rapidly as possible.

Decorative plants such as __________________________, __________________, Jerusalem cherry, amaryllis, and ______________________ are poisonous to dogs.

Vaccination Program

Puppies 6-8 weeks of age when receiving their first vaccination:

6-8 weeks (first vaccination):
Recommended: __________________________________________ 
Optional: parainfluenza, parvovirus

9-11 weeks (second vaccination):
Recommended: ___________________________________________ 
Optional: *leptospirosis, coronavirus

12-14 weeks (third vaccination):
Recommended: ___________________________________________ 
Optional: *leptospirosis, bordetellosis, coronavirus, lyme disease

15-17 weeks (fourth vaccination):
Recommended: ______________________________________________________ 
Optional: *leptospirosis, bordetellosis, coronavirus, lyme disease

Puppies 9-11 weeks of age when receiving their first vaccination:

These puppies should follow the above schedule starting with B (second vaccination) and continue through the entire program.

Puppies and adults 12 weeks of age or greater when receiving their first vaccination:

Any dog greater than 12 weeks (first vaccination):
Recommended: _________________________________________________ 
Optional: *leptospirosis, bordetellosis, coronavirus, lyme disease

At 2-3 weeks following the first vaccination:
Recommended: _________________________________________________ 
Optional: *leptospirosis, bordetellosis, coronavirus, lyme disease

___________________ are recommended for all animals that have had a series of vaccinations previously:

Recommended yearly: __________________________________________________
Optional yearly: leptospirosis, bordetellosis, coronavirus, lyme disease

Note: *Rabies is recommended every 1-3 years depending on dog’s age, product used, and local public health laws.

Note: Recent research and studies have indicated that certain vaccines may only be needed every 3 years.  Because of this, it is highly recommended that a local veterinarian be consulted.

Common  Parasites:

Internal Parasites:

            1.                                                                     4.

            2.                                                                     5.

            3.                                                                     6.

Heart Worm

Canine heartworm disease is caused by filarial worm being transmitted to dogs while being bitten by a ________________________.

Severe heartworm infections can cause damage to the dog's heart and other organs before visible signs or symptoms appear.  The disease is usually in its advanced stages by the time typical symptoms - _______________________, labored _______________________, uncommon ________________________ and tiring are seen.  A severe infection often leads to heart failure or related complications, and death.

Your veterinarian can diagnose the presence of adult heartworms.  In many cases he can prevent the further development of heartworm disease.

Common Internal Parasites:

_________________________ are fairly large worms that can grow to be four or five inches long. These worms inhabit your dog’s internal organs, namely its _________, _______________ and ______________.

When they’re done there, they will work their way down to the small intestine and eat your dog’s food.

You’ll know when your dog has a case of roundworms because it will be constantly _____________________, will have messy diarrhea, will be bloated and have gas, will cough a lot and will start losing some fur at a higher rate than normal.

Another major parasite in pets is the __________________________. These are curly creatures that are very tiny and are often found in large ________________. They can be very problematic for your dog, because they eat the food in your dog’s stomach and also suck your dog’s blood. This can cause severe anemia in dogs. Symptoms include loose diarrhea, bloating and gas, weight loss, and loose fur.

The third main parasite found in a dog is the ______________________. The whipworm lives in the large intestine, and your dog will experience bloating, bloody diarrhea, and have a very large appetite. The main way your dog acquires these parasites is by sniffing or eating infected stool, or by having one of these such worms enter its system. If you find that your dog may be infected, you should contact your vet.

External Parasites:

            1.                                                         3.

            2.                                                         4. 

Signs of External Parasites

External parasites: __________________________________________________


Each Month:

Administer __________________  ____________________, such as Heartgard, Heartgard Plus, or Interceptor.

Administer ____________ and _________________ prevention in problem areas. Effective products may include Frontline or Advantage.

Every 3-12 Months:

Administer additional parasite prevention/treatment for ascarids, tapeworms, strongyles, whipworms, and hookworms. This may include Drontal Plus. The frequency of this treatment is based on the chance of recurring infections and the specific area where the animal resides.